What is Cash Flow Statement and how is it different from Fund Flow Statement | ApnaCourse

by | Jul 13, 2016 | Financial Management

 Manu Conversation Between  Vinu
1  Manu and Vinu about Cash Flow Statement 2
Manu Hi Vinu! How are you?
Vinu Fine Manu!
Manu How is your Financial Analysis Job going on?
Vinu Manu, now I am in the process of analysing Financial Statements of a particular customer. His Financials vis-a-viz reality is taking me for a ride!
Manu Why? What’s the problem?
Vinu He is showing good progress in his business with Growth in Sales and Profits. But that’s on papers.
In reality,
He doesn’t have sufficient funds to meet his expenses.
He couldn’t service Bank Loans on time.
Many of his cheques issued to suppliers get bounced.
He pays salary to his employees with great delay.
How all these can happen if he is making so much profit? I have a doubt whether he is giving bogus financial report?
Manu Vinu! I don’t know what the exact background of your customer is. But one thing I can tell you! It is not necessary that he should have cash to meet his expenses / requirements, since because he is making profit.
Vinu That sounds strange!!!!
Manu But that’s the reality! Profit is not cash!
Vinu Come on yaar! What are you talking?
Manu True Vinu! Profits are not cash and register it in your mind strongly!
Vinu Ok! I understand that if you say something, it would be with logic. But tell me that logic!
Manu Ok. Answer this simple question:

Let’s say you have the following Profit and Loss Statement:

Rs. In Crs
Sales 100.00
Raw Material Consumed (60.00)
Labour Cost (10.00)
Power and Fuel (5.00)
Depreciation (5.00)

What should be profit?

Vinu Sales is 100.00 Crs
expenses are 80.00 Crs
So profits should be 20.00 Crs.
Manu Fine! With this limited information, tell me what could be the cash balance?
Vinu Sales                  100.00 Crs

Expenses             80.00 Crs

So Cash Balance should also be 20.00 Crs

Manu This is your mistake!

Don’t you remember Financials are prepared following accrual concept wherein
Expenses will be accounted when accrued, whether it is paid or not;
Income will be recognized whether it is received or not.

Vinu Yes. Agreed. But here we don’t have any such item or you have not told me anything about that!
Manu True! But you also didn’t notice the effect of depreciation. Whether depreciation has cash outflow?
Vinu No! It is only book entry to account for fixed assets by charging against profits over the period of its life.
Manu So what could be the profit before depreciation?
Vinu It may be

Profit 20.00
Add: Depreciation 5.00
Profit before Depreciation 25.00
Manu Ya! That’s correct and that profit can be called as Cash Profit!
Vinu Oh! Is this the cash balance?
Manu Don’t jump for conclusion. Again I am repeating! Profit is not cash!
Vinu Ok! Ok!
Manu Do you think all the sales can be made for cash?
Vinu No! In order to be competitive and attract new customers, credit should be given!
Manu Correct! Let’s say, 75% of sales are on credit!
Vinu Then in that case, 100 Crs x 75% = 75 Crs should be credit sales.
Manu So, what is your Cash Sales?
Total Sales 100.00
Less: Credit Sales 75.00
Cash Sales           25.00


Manu When you give credit, you can also get credit! Is it not?
Vinu Sure!
Manu But it happens in market that you give more credit to attract customers but you receive only less credit from your suppliers! Because, suppliers would be generally big players and they go by fixed norms! Your other expenses would be basically power, labor, and other operating expenses where you cannot have much credit.
Vinu True!
Manu So let us assume, 50% of your expenses are on credit.
Vinu My total expenses are Rs.80 Crs. So 50% of it is…………….
Manu Stop! Don’t consider all expenses. It includes depreciation also which is a non cash item.
Vinu Correct! Total expenses are Rs.75 Cr (excluding depreciation of 5 Crs).

50% of 75 Crs is Rs.37.50 Crs

Manu So, what is your Cash Payments?
Total Expenses 75.00
Less: Credit available for expenses (50%) 37.50
Cash Expenses 37.50
Manu Now you have both your Cash Expenses and Cash Sales. Can you prepare a Comparison table?
Vinu Ya! I can do that.


Particulars As per P&L Account Actual Cash Flow
Sales 100.00 + 25.00
Raw Material Consumed (60.00)  

– 37.50

Labour Cost (10.00)
Power and Fuel (5.00)
Depreciation (5.00) No Cash Flow
Manu Look at the table!

You made sales of Rs.100 Crs where as you received only Rs.25 Crs.
You have incurred expenses of 75 Crs (excluding depreciation) where as you paid only 37.50 Crs.
So what is your cash balance?

Vinu Cash balance?

a) Cash Sales 25.00
b) Less: Cash Expenses (37.50)
c) Shortage (a-b) – 12.50

I don’t have cash balance!!!!!!

Manu But you had profit of Rs.20 Crs!
Vinu Ha ha! I am caught! Now I understand profit has no relevance to cash balance or cash generation!!!
Manu No! Modify that statement!

Profit has relevance but it alone does not decide cash balance or say cash generation!

Vinu Ok! In this case, how come cash balance can be negative?

It is Negative 12.50 Cr.

Manu Don’t say Negative 12.50 Cr.

Cash can never be negative figure.
What happened to you is you realised Rs.25 Crs from cash sales and PAID cash expenses of Rs.37.50 Crs.

You cannot pay 37.50 Crs without cash with you. Yes or No?

Vinu Yes! I cannot pay 37.50 Crs without cash with me. But how I got 37.50?
Manu You generated 25 Crs.

You had shortage of Rs.12.50 Cr

You should have managed that shortage with some other sources!

Vinu Some other sources?? How come?
Manu Common yaar! Do you think, cash is generated or brought into the business only through sales?

There are various other ways for mobilising cash for the business.

Vinu Correct!

Cash can be brought into the business through

a.       Raising Capital;
b.      Raising Long Term Loans;
c.       Raising Short Term Loans;
d.      Selling Assets;
e.      Selling Investments.

Manu Good!

What was your Shortage from Operations?

Vinu It was Rs.12.50 Cr
Manu Now let us assume, you have funded this shortage by bringing in capital of Rs.25 Crs
Vinu Rs.25 Crs???
Manu Yes! Now arrive at your cash position
Vinu It is

a)      Cash Sales 25.00
b)      Less: Cash Expenses 37.50
c)       Shortage (a-b) -12.50
d)      Add: Fresh Capital 25.00
e)      Surplus 12.50


I have surplus of Rs.12.50.

Manu Correct! Now also assume you purchase Plant and Machinery for Rs.20 Crs and work out your cash position.
Vinu It Should be

a)      Cash Sales 25.00
b)      Less: Cash Expenses 37.50
c)       Shortage (a-b) -12.50
d)      Add: Fresh Capital 25.00
e)      Surplus 12.50
f)       Less: Purchase of P&M 20.00
g)      Shortage -7.50

Again I am landing in shortage.

Manu Don’t worry! Raise loan for Rs.7.50 Crs and work out your cash position.
a)      Cash Sales 25.00
b)      Less: Cash Expenses 37.50
c)       Shortage (a-b) -12.50
d)      Add: Fresh Capital 25.00
e)      Surplus 12.50
f)       Less: Purchase of P&M 20.00
g)      Shortage -7.50
h)      Bank Loan 7.50
i)        Cash balance
Manu Did you noticed, your balance is Nil now.
Vinu Yes! Now i understand.
I had shortage of 12.50 Cr from Operations.
But that was supported out of fresh capital of 25 Crs.
With the balance money available (25-12.50=12.50), I went for purchasing Plant and Machinery 20 Crs.
Again I faced shortage of Rs.7.50 Crs.
So, I had to finance the shortage through Bank Loan of Rs.7.50 Crs
Manu Correct!

The cash you generated from running or operating your business is called as Cash Generated from Operating Activity. In your case, it is deficit of Rs.12.50 Cr.

Vinu True!
Manu To Support cash deficit in operations and also to support purchase of plant and machinery, you

raised finance from two sources

Capital – 25 Crs

Loan – 7.50 Crs

They are Cash Generated from Financing Activity

Vinu Correct!
Manu Can you capture all these cash flows as per activities
Cash Flow from Operating Activity -12.50
Cash Flow from Investing Activity -20.00
Cash Flow from Financing Activity 32.50
Manu Good! This is you abridged Cash Flow Statement. It tells that, you have mobilised 32.50 Crs and have used 20 Crs for Investing Activity and 12.50 Crs for Operating Activity.

Now you will appreciate why the companies can suffer despite making profits.

Vinu Yes! In this case, though I have made profit but have not generated cash. I was functioning only with the support of capital funds provided by financing activity. Apart from that I also used all the balance capital funds for acquiring Plant and Machinery along with Bank Loan.
Manu Correct! Now you are getting the pulse of it.

This is the purpose of preparing Cash Flow Statement. It would give much information which P&L and Balance Sheet will not give on the face of reading. That’s why Cash Flow Statement and its Analysis are given high importance by Investors and all stake holders.

Vinu So, how ideal Cash Flow should be?
Manu In the initial period, cash can be provided by Financing Activity to Operating Activity and Investment Activity. But gradually, the cash flow from Operating Activity should become positive and it should provide for repaying financing cash flows and also support Investment activities.
Vinu Ya! Cash flow from operating activity should be positive and it indicates the very purpose of running any business. If this cash flow is positive, we will have source for funding investment and financing activities.
Manu Correct!
Vinu But Manu, the cash flow statements which I have seen are lengthy in nature. It would not be like the one which we have discussed.
Manu We have discussed the cash flow which can be prepared under direct method. But what we see in Industry would be cash flow prepared in Indirect Method.
Vinu What was that?
Manu Those cash flow statements are prepared from the information available in Profit and Loss
Statement and Balance Sheet in Indirect Way.
Profit and Loss Statement will be perused to find out the cash profits.
Profits reported in P&L Statement are computed using accrual and matching concept. So, that profit is after providing for various non cash items.
Vinu Non Cash items like?
Manu Non Cash items like

a.       Credit Sales
b.      Credit Purchases
c.       Outstanding Expenses
d.      Accrued Incomes

Vinu Correct!
Manu These items will also have presence in Balance Sheet in the form of current assets and current liabilities in various names. So movement of those items will also be provided in Cash Flow Statement to know the exact cash generated from operating activity.
Vinu Ya! In our example


Sales were Rs.100 Crs. whereas Debtors created out of Sales is 75 Crs.


Our profit is 20 Crs, No No…Cash profit is 25 Crs but it is calculated based on Total Sales (cash & credit) and so it will not reflect cash generation.


So we have to deduct non- cash sales from Cash Profits which is in the form of Debtors – 75 Crs.


Is that right?

Manu You are right!

By deducting increase in current asset (in our case, debtors) from cash profits, we are communicating to the readers, that though our company has earned cash profit of Rs.25 Crs from Sales of Rs.100 Crs, please bear in mind we have not realised 75 Crs worth of Debtors. So we are deducting it!!!

Vinu Very true!
Manu In the same way, if we carry creditors, or say, creditor’s increases, then to that extent there is no cash outflow. So, that will be added with cash profits to communicate to the readers, cash position is more than the cash profits!
Vinu Correct! In our case, cash profit is Rs.25 Crs. We also have unpaid expenses (creditors) of Rs.37.50 Crs. So this should be added to cash profits!
Manu You are right! Can you tabulate cash generated from your operating activity based on our discussion?
Vinu Ya!

Profit 20.00
Add: Depreciation 5.00
Less: Increase in Current Assets (Debtors) (75.00)
Add: Increase in Current Liabilities (Creditors) 37.50
Net Cash from Operating Activities (12.50)


Is it correct?

Manu Very Much!

Also remember you will see some more additions and subtractions in real cash flow statements.

Vinu Like?
Manu Additions for

Interest Expenses;

Loss on Sale of Asset;

Deductions for

Interest Income;

Dividend Income;

Profit on Sale of Asset;

Vinu When these items obviously decide the profits, whey these should be added back or deducted?
Manu I agree that they decided profits!

But they are not out of operational activities of the business.

In cash flow from operating activity, focus is on finding cash generated from operating activity.

So any activity, which is not part of operating activity, but already included in profits will be removed by either adding back or deducting!

Vinu Ok!

Let me understand that!

Interest is paid on Financing Source – So it is a Financing Activity. But it is already considered as expense for arriving at profit. So, we remove this interest by adding back! Is that right?

Manu Correct!


Loss / Profit on Sale of Asset are result of Investing Activity! So we remove them from profits either by adding / deducting under Cash Flow from Operating Activities.

Vinu True!


Dividend / Interest income are also part of Investing Activity! So we should remove them from profits by deducting under Cash Flow from Operating Activities.

Manu So remember, when you do this adjustment (adding / deducting) under Operating Activity, you are doing it, because you want to show them under respective activity!
Vinu Ya!

Interest added back in Operating Activity should be shown as deduction in Financing Activity.

Dividend / Interest Income deducted in Operating Activity should be shown as addition in Investing Activity.

Manu Very Good! So now you know how to prepare Cash Flow Statement too!
Vinu How about the other activities Manu?
Manu Other activities don’t involve much complication! You have to ensure only cash flows are

captured and non-cash items are ignored.

Sometimes assets can be purchased by issue of shares instead of cash. Then in those cases, purchase of asset will not figure under Investment activity.

Vinu Understood!

What would be the effect, if a company issues bonus shares?

Manu In that case also, there is no cash flow.

Because of Bonus Issue, there may be increase in Share Capital but there will not be any cash inflow. So that will not find place in Cash Flow Statement!

Vinu Understood! So the focus is on cash inflows and outflows and all non-cash items are knocked off!
Manu Exactly!
Cash flow statement is a great tool for Investors, Bankers and other stake holders! It would communicate, whether you generate funds from business or you are dependent on Investment and Financing Activities for running your operations!
Vinu True!
If business is run with support of cash inflows from Investment activities it indicates company is selling its assets to fund its operations! So it would raise serious question on Going Concern right?
Manu Yes!
Similarly, if cash flows from Financing Activities continuously increases to support operating activity, it is also not a healthy sign because company is dependent on other funds to support its operations and it would become dangerous if the company is too dependent on borrowed funds.
Vinu Ya! I think single reading of Cash Flow Statement would give complete cash flow movement of business.
Manu Absolutely and it is very important for any stake holder to read cash flow statement before investing or lending, because


N Raja CA, A Practicing Chartered Accountant with tonnes of passion for teaching. He also holds a PGDBA – Finance from Symbiosis SCDL and a B.Com., from Loyola College, Chennai. Read More.

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